Principles of Reasoning (2021)

PHIL 1200. Section 100. Ohio University, Fall 2021.

  • Lectures, MW 5:15–6:10pm (EST), Bentley Hall 227.
    Instructor: Dr. Yoichi Ishida. For office hours, click the menu on the left.
  • Discussion Section 101, M 12:55–1:50pm (EST), Bentley Hall 015.
    Instructor: Amy Spino (as574821@ohio.edu). Office: Ellis Hall 222. Office Hour: M 11:00–12:00pm and by appointment.
  • Discussion Section 102, M 2:00–2:55pm (EST). Bentley Hall 011.
    Instructor: Maria Dubin (md288321@ohio.edu). Office: Ellis Hall 222. Office Hour: Tue 12:00–1:00pm and by appointment.
  • Discussion Section 103, M 3:05–4:00pm (EST). Bentley Hall 011.
    Instructor: Ashley Labodda (al404621@ohio.edu). Office: Ellis Hall 222. Office Hour: W 2:30–3:30pm and by appointment.
  • Logic Cafe (walk-in tutoring)

Course Description

How do we reason? When is our intuitive reasoning reliable or unreliable? What makes a good argument? How can we tell good and bad arguments? What is a deductive argument, and how should we evaluate its strength? What is an inductive argument, and how should we evaluate its strength? This course introduces basic concepts and techniques of deductive and inductive logic to help you answer these questions. Topics include: informal fallacies in reasoning; system for symbolizing arguments and deriving conclusions from premises; natural deduction; inductive reasoning; probability calculus; inductive fallacies.

By the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Explain central concepts and techniques of deductive and inductive logic.
  2. Analyze arguments, applying these principles and concepts.
  3. Evaluate the strength of an argument, using the logical concepts and techniques introduced in the course.

Technology Requirements

This course is offered in-person, but if it becomes online, it will be offered through this website, Blackboard, Microsoft Teams, and Top Hat. To be successful, you will need to have reliable internet and a computer with audio and video capabilities. You will also need to have Microsoft Word (or equivalent) to do assignments.

Course Policies

Assignments and Final Grade

The assignments listed in Table 1 below are required in this course, and your final grade will be calculated according to Table 2.

AssignmentsDue DatesWeights
Attendance in LecturesEvery class starting Week 310%
Attendance in SectionsEvery class starting Week 310%
Exam 1Week 5 (9/20)10%
Exam 2Week 8 (10/11)15%
Exam 3Week 11 (11/1)15%
Exam 4Week 14 (11/29)15%
Final Exam (Cumulative)Monday, December 6, 4:40pm (EST)25%
Table 1: The assignments and their due dates in this course. Weights are percentages of the final grade.

Exams 1-4 will be closed book and given at the beginning of lecture meetings as indicated above. The final exam will be cumulative and closed book. The questions on each exam may take various forms, including but not limited to true/false, multiple choice, and written answer (definition, explanation, calculation, proof, etc). Each question will be designed to assess your level of attainment of the course learning objectives and weekly learning objectives that each exam covers. See Study Guide and Course Policies about these assignments.

GradePercentageGradePercentage
A93 or aboveC73–76
A–90–92C–70–72
B+87–89D+67–69
B83–86D63–66
B–80–82D–60–62
C+77–79F59 or below
Table 2: The letter grades and percentages. Your percentage points will be rounded to the nearest one (e.g., 92.5 is rounded up to 93; 89.4 is rounded down to 89).

Although not formalized in these tables, your improvements over the course of the semester and exceptionally good participation in lecture and discussion sections will count favorably toward your final grade.

Study Guide

Schedule and Lecture Notes

Week 1 (8/23, 8/25): Introduction

Week 2 (8/30, 9/1): Psychology of Reasoning (I)

Week 3 (9/8): Psychology of Reasoning (II)

Week 4 (9/13, 9/15): Types of Reasoning

Week 5 (9/20, 9/22): Deductive Reasoning (I)

Week 6 (9/27, 9/29): Deductive Reasoning (II)

Week 7 (10/4, 10/6): Deductive Reasoning (III)

Week 8 (10/11, 10/13): Deductive Reasoning (IV)

Week 9 (10/18, 10/20): Deductive Reasoning (V)

Week 10 (10/25, 10/27): Inductive Reasoning (I)

Week 11 (11/1, 11/3): Inductive Reasoning (II)

Week 12 (11/8, 11/10): Inductive Reasoning (III)

Week 13 (11/15, 11/17): Inductive Reasoning (IV)

Week 14 (11/29, 12/1): Review and Conclusion

Final Exam: Monday, December 6, 4:40 pm.